What does an oscilloscope do? An oscilloscope is easily the most useful instrument available for testing circuits because it allows you to see the signals at different points in the circuit. The best way of investigating an electronic system is to monitor signals at the input and output of each system block, checking that each

Quantum physics

“I think it is safe to say that no one understands quantum mechanics.” Physicist Richard P. Feynman To say that the invention of semiconductor devices was a revolution would not be an exaggeration. Not only was this an impressive technological accomplishment, but it paved the way for developments that would indelibly alter modern society. Semiconductor

Amplifier Gain

Decibel or dB Gain An amplifier is such an electronic device which controls a bigger electrical signal by means of a far smaller electrical signal. The output signal of this device may be voltage controlled or current controlled. An amplifier just creates a copy of input signal (control signal) but in larger magnitude with the

Applications of Bipolar Junction Transistor or BJT

History of Bipolar Junction Transistors The transistor (BJT) was not the first three terminal devices. Before transistors came into existence vacuum tubes were used. In electronics, vacuum tube triodes were used almost for half a century before the BJT’s. The light bulb invented by Thomas Edison in the early 1880’s was one of the first

Biasing of Bipolar Junction Transistor

BJT or Bipolar Transistor Biasing Biasing of the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is the process of applying external voltages to it. In order to use the BJT for any application like amplification, the two junctions of the transistor CB and BE should be properly biased according to the required application. Depending on whether the two

Integrated Circuits

Types of IC Normally bipolar junction transistors, diodes and field effect transistors are commonly used electronics component in electronic circuit. These components are interconnected along with required resistors and capacitors to form an electronic circuit. This type of circuit is known as discrete circuit as each of the components can be separated from the circuit

Regulated Power Supply

Today almost every electronic device needs a dc supply for its smooth operation and they need to be operated within certain power supply limits. This required dc voltage or dc supply is derived from single phase ac mains. A regulated power supply can convert unregulated an ac (alternating current or voltage) to a constant dc

Working Principle of Op-amp

An operational amplifier or OP-AMP is a DC-coupled voltage amplifier with a very high voltage gain. Op-amp is basically a multistage amplifier in which a number of amplifier stages are interconnected to each other in a very complicated manner. Its internal circuit consists of many transistors, FETs and resistors. All this occupies a very little

Light Dependent Resistor

LDR & Working Principle of LDR A Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) or a photo resistor is a device whose resistivity is a function of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Hence, they are light sensitive devices. They are also called as photo conductors, photo conductive cells or simply photocells. They are made up of semiconductor materials having

Working Principle and Types of Diode

What is a Diode? A diode is a simple electrical device that allows the flow of current only in one direction. So it can be said to act somewhat like a switch. A specific arrangement of diodes can convert AC to pulsating DC, hence it is sometimes also called as a rectifier. It is derived